|Office of the Attorney General - State of Texas
December 29, 1999
Mr. Leonard W. Peck, Jr.
Dear Mr. Peck:
You ask whether certain information is subject to required public disclosure under chapter 552 of the Government Code. Your request was assigned ID# 130736.
The Department of Criminal Justice (the "department") received a request for information related to the manufacture of inmate uniforms. You have submitted representative samples of the responsive information.(1) You assert that the requested information is not "information as defined in the section 552.002 of the Government Code." Alternatively, you claim that the information is excepted from disclosure under section 552.110 of the Government Code. We have considered your arguments against disclosure, and have reviewed the submitted information.
You assert that the requested information is not subject to the Public Information Act (the "act") because it is not "public information" as defined in the act. Gov't Code § 552.002(c). Part of the information you claim is responsive to the request consists of large "thick plastic or a similar rigid or durable material" patterns used to manufacture inmate uniforms. We agree that the original patterns are not "public information" as defined in section 552.002(c). However, you have submitted photographs of the patterns. The photographs and any records maintained in the forms mentioned in section 552.002(b) are "public information," and thus, they are subject to the requirements of section 552.021 of the Government Code. See Gov't Code § 552.022(b). (2)
You assert that the submitted information, including the photographs, are protected by section 552.110 of the Government Code because they are a "trade secret." The Texas Supreme Court has adopted the definition of "trade secret" from the Restatement of Torts, section 757, which defines a "trade secret" as
any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information which is used in one's business, and which gives him an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. It may be a formula for a chemical compound, a process of manufacturing, treating or preserving materials, a pattern for a machine or other device, or a list of customers. It differs from other secret information in a business . . . in that it is not simply information as to a single or ephemeral event in the conduct of the business . . . . A trade secret is a process or device for continuous use in the operation of the business. . . . [It may] relate to the sale of goods or to other operations in the business, such as a code for determining discounts, rebates or other concessions in a price list or catalogue, or a list of specialized customers, or a method of bookkeeping or other office management.
Restatement of Torts § 757 cmt. b (1939); see Hyde Corp. v. Huffines, 314 S.W.2d 763, 776 (Tex.), cert. denied, 358 U.S. 898 (1958). In the unique position of being both the governmental body and the third-party whose proprietary interest is at issue, you submitted arguments as to how the submitted information consists of a "trade secret."(3) After reviewing your arguments, we conclude that the department has not established that the submitted information is protected as a trade secret under section 552.110. See Open Records Decision No. 552 at 5 (1990) (party must establish prima facie case that information is trade secret), 542 at 3 (1990). Cf. Open Records Decision No. 660 (1999) (governmental body holding trademark on information must allow requestor access). Thus, you may not withhold the requested information under the trade secret prong of section 552.110.
This letter ruling is limited to the particular records at issue in this request and limited to the facts as presented to us; therefore, this ruling must not be relied upon as a previous determination regarding any other records or any other circumstances.
This ruling triggers important deadlines regarding the rights and responsibilities of the governmental body and of the requestor. For example, governmental bodies are prohibited from asking the attorney general to reconsider this ruling. Gov't Code § 552.301(f). If the governmental body wants to challenge this ruling, the governmental body must appeal by filing suit in Travis County within 30 calendar days. Id. § 552.324(b). In order to get the full benefit of such an appeal, the governmental body must file suit within 10 calendar days. Id. § 552.353(b)(3), (c). If the governmental body does not appeal this ruling and the governmental body does not comply with it, then both the requestor and the attorney general have the right to file suit against the governmental body to enforce this ruling. Id. § 552.321(a).
If this ruling requires the governmental body to release all or part of the requested information, the governmental body is responsible for taking the next step. Based on the statute, the attorney general expects that, within 10 calendar days of this ruling, the governmental body will do one of the following three things: 1) release the public records; 2) notify the requestor of the exact day, time, and place that copies of the records will be provided or that the records can be inspected; or 3) notify the requestor of the governmental body's intent to challenge this letter ruling in court. If the governmental body fails to do one of these three things within 10 calendar days of this ruling, then the requestor should report that failure to the attorney general's Open Government Hotline, toll free, at 877/673-6839. The requestor may also file a complaint with the district or county attorney. Id. § 552.3215(e).
If this ruling requires or permits the governmental body to withhold all or some of the requested information, the requestor can appeal that decision by suing the governmental body. Id. § 552.321(a); Texas Department of Public Safety v. Gilbreath, 842 S.W.2d 408, 411 (Tex. App.-Austin 1992, no writ).
If the governmental body, the requestor, or any other person has questions or comments about this ruling, they may contact our office. Although there is no statutory deadline for contacting us, the attorney general prefers to receive any comments within 10 calendar days of the date of this ruling.
Carla Gay Dickson
Ref: ID# 130736
Encl. Submitted documents
cc: Mr. Hector Farias
1. In reaching our conclusion here, we assume that the "representative sample" of records submitted to this office is truly representative of the requested records as a whole. See Open Records Decision Nos. 499 (1988); 497 (1988). This open records letter does not reach, and therefore does not authorize the withholding of, any other requested records to the extent that those records contain substantially different types of information than that submitted to this office.
2. To the extent other photographs of these or other patterns exist, those photographs are also subject to the act.
3. The six factors that the Restatement gives as indicia of whether information constitutes a trade secret are: "(1) the extent to which the information is known outside of [the company]; (2) the extent to which it is known by employees and other involved in [the company's] business; (3) the extent of measures taken by [the company] to guard the secrecy of the information; (4) the value of the information to [the company] and [its] competitors; (5) the amount of effort or money expended by [the company] in developing the information; (6) the ease or difficulty with which the information could be properly acquired or duplicated by others." Restatement of Torts § 757 cmt. b (1939); see also Open Records Decision Nos. 319 at 2 (1982), 306 at 2 (1982), 255 at 2 (1980).
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