|Office of the Attorney General - State of Texas
January 14, 2000
Mr. Hugh Davis Jr.
Dear Mr. Davis:
You ask whether certain information is subject to required public disclosure under chapter 552 of the Government Code. Your request was assigned ID# 132281.
The City of Fort Worth (the "city") received a request for e-mail messages sent or received by the mayor, city manager, and elected council members during the past twelve months and expense account reports for those individuals. You seek to withhold, under sections 552.101, 552.102, 552.103, 552.104, 552.105, 552.107, and 552.117 of the Government Code, portions of the information responsive to the part of the request asking for e-mail messages.(1) You have submitted representative samples of the information at issue.(2)
Sections 552.024 and 552.117 provide that a public employee or official can opt to keep private his or her home address, home telephone number, social security number, or information that reveals that the individual has family members. You must withhold the portions of the submitted information for which you have claimed the protection of these provisions if, as of the time of the request for the information, the employee had elected to keep the information private. Open Records Decision Nos. 530 (1989), 482 (1987), 455 (1987).(3)
Section 552.103(a) excepts from required public disclosure information
relating to litigation of a civil or criminal nature to which the state or a political subdivision is or may be a party or to which an officer or employee of the state or a political subdivision, as a consequence of the person's office or employment, is or may be a party[.]
To secure the protection of section 552.103(a), a governmental body must demonstrate that the requested information relates to pending or reasonably anticipated litigation to which the governmental body is a party. University of Tex. Law Sch. v. Texas Legal Found., 958 S.W.2d 479, (Tex. App.-- Austin 1997, no pet.); Open Records Decision No. 588 (1991). In our opinion, you have not established, with respect to the information for which you claim the protection of section 552.103(a), that the information relates to pending or reasonably anticipated litigation. Accordingly, none of the submitted information may be withheld under section 552.103(a). See, Open Records Decision No. 638 (1996).
Section 552.107(1) incorporates the attorney-client privilege. It protects information "that the attorney general or an attorney of a political subdivision is prohibited from disclosing because of a duty to the client under the Texas Rules of Civil Evidence, the Texas Rules of Criminal Evidence, or the Texas Disciplinary Rules of Professional Conduct." See Open Records Decision No. 574 (1990). In instances where an attorney represents a governmental entity, the attorney-client privilege protects only an attorney's legal advice and confidential attorney-client communications. Id. Accordingly, these two classes of information are the only information contained in the records at issue that may be withheld pursuant to the attorney-client privilege.
Having reviewed the submitted information for which you claimed the protection of section 552.07(1), we conclude that, except for those portions which we have marked, which must be released, you may withhold the information under that provision.
Section 552.104 of the Government Code protects from required public disclosure "information that, if released, would give advantage to a competitor or bidder." The purpose of section 552.104 is to protect the government's interests when it is involved in commercial transactions. For example, section 552.104 is generally invoked to except information submitted to a governmental body as part of a bid or similar proposal. See, e.g., Open Records Decision No. 463 (1987). In these situations, the exception protects the government's interests in obtaining the most favorable proposal terms possible by denying access to proposals prior to the award of a contract.
Here, you claim the protection of section 552.104 for information relating to the screening process for candidates for city attorney. Although you contend that this process is a "competitive" one and that public release of the information at issue would enable candidates "to take unfair advantage in the upcoming interview process," we find no basis in the prior rulings of this office for extending the protection of section 552.104 to this kind of information. None of the submitted information may be withheld under section 552.104.
We note, however, that some of the information related to the screening process must be withheld under the common law privacy aspect of section 552.101. Section 552.101 protects "information considered to be confidential by law, either constitutional, statutory, or by judicial decision," including information coming within the common law right to privacy. Industrial Found. of the South v. Texas Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W.2d 668 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977). Common law privacy protects information if it is highly intimate or embarrassing, such that its release would be highly objectionable to a reasonable person, and it is of no legitimate concern to the public. Id. at 683-85. The portions of the submitted information reflecting individuals' salaries from non-public employers must be withheld under the common-law privacy aspect of section 552.101. See Open Records Decision No. 590 (1991) (individual's financial information not reflecting transaction with governmental entity is protected by common-law privacy).
We note too that you advise that the information relating to the screening process is copyrighted. A custodian of public records must comply with the copyright law and is not required to furnish copies of records that are copyrighted. Attorney General Opinion JM-672 (1987). A governmental body must allow inspection of copyrighted materials unless an exception applies to the information. Id. If a member of the public wishes to make copies of copyrighted materials, the person must do so unassisted by the governmental body. In making copies, the member of the public assumes the duty of compliance with the copyright law and the risk of a copyright infringement suit. See Open Records Decision No. 550 (1990).
Section 552.105 excepts from disclosure information relating to:
(1) the location of real or personal property for a public purpose prior to public announcement of the project; or
(2) appraisals or purchase price of real or personal property for a public purpose prior to the formal award of contracts for the property.
Section 552.105 was designed to protect a governmental body's planning and negotiating position with respect to particular transactions. Open Records Decision No. 564 (1990). This exception protects information relating to the location, appraisals, and purchase price of property only until the transaction is either completed or aborted. Open Records Decision Nos. 357 (1982), 310 (1982). Having reviewed the submitted information for which you claim the protection of section 552.105, and based on your representation that this information reflects the city's plans for real estate transactions not as yet concluded, we conclude that you may withhold such information under this provision. Except as noted above, the submitted information must be released.
This letter ruling is limited to the particular records at issue in this request and limited to the facts as presented to us; therefore, this ruling must not be relied upon as a previous determination regarding any other records or any other circumstances.
This ruling triggers important deadlines regarding the rights and responsibilities of the governmental body and of the requestor. For example, governmental bodies are prohibited from asking the attorney general to reconsider this ruling. Gov't Code § 552.301(f). If the governmental body wants to challenge this ruling, the governmental body must appeal by filing suit in Travis County within 30 calendar days. Id. § 552.324(b). In order to get the full benefit of such an appeal, the governmental body must file suit within 10 calendar days. Id. § 552.353(b)(3), (c). If the governmental body does not appeal this ruling and the governmental body does not comply with it, then both the requestor and the attorney general have the right to file suit against the governmental body to enforce this ruling. Id. § 552.321(a).
If this ruling requires the governmental body to release all or part of the requested information, the governmental body is responsible for taking the next step. Based on the statute, the attorney general expects that, within 10 calendar days of this ruling, the governmental body will do one of the following three things: 1) release the public records; 2) notify the requestor of the exact day, time, and place that copies of the records will be provided or that the records can be inspected; or 3) notify the requestor of the governmental body's intent to challenge this letter ruling in court. If the governmental body fails to do one of these three things within 10 calendar days of this ruling, then the requestor should report that failure to the attorney general's Open Government Hotline, toll free, at 877/673-6839. The requestor may also file a complaint with the district or county attorney. Id. § 552.3215(e).
If this ruling requires or permits the governmental body to withhold all or some of the requested information, the requestor can appeal that decision by suing the governmental body. Id. § 552.321(a); Texas Department of Public Safety v. Gilbreath, 842 S.W.2d 408, 411 (Tex. App.-Austin 1992, no writ).
If the governmental body, the requestor, or any other person has questions or comments about this ruling, they may contact our office. Although there is no statutory deadline for contacting us, the attorney general prefers to receive any comments within 10 calendar days of the date of this ruling.
Ref: ID# 132281
Encl. Submitted documents
cc: Ms. P.A. Humphrey
1. Although you raised other exceptions to disclosure in your original correspondence with this office, you did not submit arguments in connection with the other exceptions and we, thus, do not address them.
2. In reaching our conclusion, we assume that the "representative sample" of records submitted to this office is truly representative of the requested records as a whole. See Open Records Decision No. 499 (1988), 497 (1988) (where requested documents are numerous and repetitive, governmental body should submit representative sample; but if each record contains substantially different information, all must be submitted). This open records letter does not reach, and therefore does not authorize the withholding of, any other requested records to the extent that those records contain substantially different types of information than that submitted to this office.
3. Since your claim under section 552.102 was directed at the information we have permitted you to withhold under section 552.117, we need not further address the section 552.102 claim.
POST OFFICE BOX 12548, AUSTIN, TEXAS 78711-2548 TEL: (512) 463-2100 WEB: WWW.OAG.STATE.TX.US