|Office of the Attorney General - State of Texas
December 7, 2000
Mr. John Sumner
Dear Mr. Sumner:
You ask whether certain information is subject to required public disclosure under the Public Information Act, chapter 552 of the Government Code. Your request was assigned ID# 141917.
The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission ("TNRCC") received a request for information regarding fifteen different companies. You state that you have released some information to the requestor, but claim that remaining responsive information is excepted from disclosure under sections 552.101, 552.103, 552.107, and 552.111 of the Government Code. We have considered the exception you claim and reviewed the submitted information representative sample of information.(1)
Pursuant to section 552.301(e), a governmental body is required to submit to this office within fifteen business days of receiving an open records request a copy of requested information, or representative sample thereof, as well as comments stating the reasons why the asserted exceptions apply to the information. TNRCC received the request for information on September 19, 2000. This office did not receive the representative sample of requested information and TNRCC's arguments until October 12, 2000, beyond the fifteen day time period. Futhermore, there is no indication that the material was deposited in the United States mail or interagency mail within the requisite period. See Gov't Code § 552.308. Therefore, the requested information is presumed to be public information.
Gov't Code § 552.302. Information that is presumed public must be released unless a governmental body demonstrates a compelling reason to withhold the information to overcome this presumption. See Hancock v. State Bd. Of Ins., 797 S.W.2d 379, 381-82 (Tex. App.-Austin 1990, no writ) (governmental body must make compelling demonstration to overcome presumption of openness pursuant to statutory predecessor to Gov't Code § 552.302); Open Records Decision No. 319 at 1-2 (1982).
You have raised section 552.101 in conjunction with the informer's privilege. The informer's privilege has been recognized by Texas courts. See Aguilar v. State, 444 S.W.2d 935, 937 (Tex. Crim. App. 1969). It protects from disclosure the identities of persons who report activities over which the governmental body has criminal or quasi-criminal law enforcement authority, provided that the subject of the information does not already know the informer's identity. Open Records Decision Nos. 515 at 3 (1988), 208 at 1-2 (1978). The informer's privilege protects the identities of individuals who report violations of statutes to the police or similar law enforcement agencies, as well as those who report violation of statutes with civil or criminal penalties to "administrative officials having a duty of inspection or of law enforcement within their particular spheres." Open Records Decision No. 279 at 2 (1981) (citing 8 J. Wigmore, Evidence § 2374 (McNaughton rev. ed. 1961)). The report must be of a violation of a criminal or civil statute. See Open Records Decision Nos. 582 at 2 (1990), 515 at 4-5 (1988). Because its purpose is to protect the flow of information to a governmental body, rather than to protect a third person, the informer's privilege, unlike other claims under section 552.101 of the Government Code, can be waived. See Open Records Decision No. 549 at 5 (1990). Therefore, the informer's privilege may not serve as a compelling reason for overcoming the presumption of openness under section 552.302. Likewise, the remaining exceptions you claim under sections 552.103, 552.107, and 552.111 are discretionary and therefore do not provide compelling reasons for overcoming the presumption of openness under section 552.302. See Open Records Decision Nos. 473 at 2 (1987), 630 at 4-7 (1994). Because you have failed to raise a compelling reason for withholding the requested information, the information is presumed public and must be disclosed to the requestor. Gov't Code §§ 552.301(e), .302.
This ruling triggers important deadlines regarding the rights and responsibilities of the governmental body and of the requestor. For example, governmental bodies are prohibited from asking the attorney general to reconsider this ruling. Gov't Code § 552.301(f). If the governmental body wants to challenge this ruling, the governmental body must appeal by filing suit in Travis County within 30 calendar days. Id. § 552.324(b). In order to get the full benefit of such an appeal, the governmental body must file suit within 10 calendar days. Id. § 552.353(b)(3), (c). If the governmental body does not appeal this ruling and the
governmental body does not comply with it, then both the requestor and the attorney general have the right to file suit against the governmental body to enforce this ruling. Id. § 552.321(a).
If this ruling requires or permits the governmental body to withhold all or some of the requested information, the requestor can appeal that decision by suing the governmental body. Id. § 552.321(a); Texas Dep't of Pub. Safety v. Gilbreath, 842 S.W.2d 408, 411 (Tex. App.--Austin 1992, no writ).
Please remember that under the Act the release of information triggers certain procedures for costs and charges to the requestor. If records are released in compliance with this ruling, be sure that all charges for the information are at or below the legal amounts. Questions or complaints about over-charging must be directed to Hadassah Schloss at the General Services Commission at 512/475-2497.
Nathan E. Bowden
Ref: ID# 141917
Encl: Submitted documents
cc: Ms. Christina Austin
1. In reaching our conclusion here, we assume that the "representative sample" of information submitted to this office is truly representative of the requested records as a whole. See Open Records Decision Nos. 499 (1988), 497 (1988). This open records letter does not reach, and therefore does not authorize the withholding of, any other requested records to the extent that those records contain substantially different types of information than that submitted to this office.