Office of the ATTORNEY GENERAL
December 3, 2002
Mr. Ernesto Rodriguez
Dear Mr. Rodriguez:
You ask whether certain information is subject to required public disclosure under chapter 552 of the Government Code. Your request was assigned ID# 173017.
The El Paso County Sheriff's Department (the "department") received two requests for internal affairs documents regarding deputies or detention officers, including two named officers, engaging in sexual activity while on duty. You state that the department has no information responsive to the request pertaining to one of the named individuals.(1) You claim that a portion of the requested information is excepted from disclosure under sections 552.101 and 552.102 of the Government Code. We have considered the exceptions you claim and reviewed the submitted information.
Initially, we note that the submitted information is subject to section 552.022 of the Government Code. Section 552.022 provides that
the following categories of information are public information and not excepted from required disclosure under this chapter unless they are expressly confidential under other law:
(1) a completed report, audit, evaluation, or investigation made of, for, or by a governmental body, except as provided by Section 552.108[.]
Gov't Code § 552.022(a)(1). In this instance, the submitted information pertains to completed investigations. Thus, this information must be released under section 552.022(a)(1) unless it is expressly confidential under other law or excepted from disclosure under section 552.108.(2) You argue that sections 552.101 and 552.102 except a portion of the submitted information from public disclosure. As sections 552.101 and 552.102 are considered confidentiality provisions for the purpose of section 552.022, we will consider the application of those sections.
Section 552.101 of the Government Code excepts from disclosure "information considered to be confidential by law, either constitutional, statutory, or by judicial decision." This section encompasses information protected by other statutes. Included among the documents you seek to withhold is an accident report form that appears to have been completed pursuant to chapter 550 of the Transportation Code. See Transp. Code § 550.064 (officer's accident report). Section 550.065(b) of the Transportation Code states that except as provided by subsection (c), accident reports are privileged and confidential. Section 550.065(c)(4) provides for the release of accident reports to a person who provides two of the following three pieces of information: (1) date of the accident; (2) name of any person involved in the accident; and (3) specific location of the accident. Transp. Code § 550.065(c)(4). Under this provision, the Department of Public Safety or another governmental entity is required to release a copy of an accident report to a person who provides the agency with two or more pieces of information specified by the statute. Id. In the situation at hand, the requestor has not provided the department with two of the three pieces of information. Thus, you must withhold the accident report under section 552.101 in conjunction with section 550.065(b) of the Transportation Code.
Criminal history record information ("CHRI") generated by the National Crime Information Center ("NCIC") or by the Texas Crime Information Center ("TCIC") is confidential. Title 28, part 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations governs the release of CHRI that states obtain from the federal government or other states. Open Records Decision No. 565 (1990). The federal regulations allow each state to follow its individual law with respect to CHRI it generates. Id. Section 411.083 of the Government Code deems confidential CHRI that the Department of Public Safety ("DPS") maintains, except that DPS may disseminate this information as provided in chapter 411, subchapter F of the Government Code. See Gov't Code § 411.083.
Sections 411.083(b)(1) and 411.089(a) authorize a criminal justice agency to obtain CHRI; however, a criminal justice agency may not release CHRI except to another criminal justice agency for a criminal justice purpose. Id. § 411.089(b)(1). Other entities specified in chapter 411 of the Government Code are entitled to obtain CHRI from DPS or another criminal justice agency; however, those entities may not release CHRI except as provided by chapter 411. See generally id. §§ 411.090 - .127. Thus, any CHRI generated by the federal government or another state may not be made available to the requestor except in accordance with federal regulations. See Open Records Decision No. 565 (1990). Furthermore, any CHRI obtained from DPS or any other criminal justice agency must be withheld under section 552.101 of the Government Code in conjunction with Government Code chapter 411, subchapter F. A portion of the information submitted for our review is CHRI generated by TCIC and NCIC. Accordingly, the information that we have marked is excepted from required public disclosure by section 552.101 of the Government Code in conjunction with Government Code chapter 411, subchapter F.
Section 1703.306 of the Occupations Code provides as follows:
(a) A polygraph examiner, trainee, or employee of a polygraph examiner, or a person for whom a polygraph examination is conducted or an employee of the person, may not disclose information acquired from a polygraph examination to another person other than:
(1) the examinee or any other person specifically designated in writing by the examinee;
(2) the person that requested the examination;
(3) a member, or the member's agent, of a governmental agency that licenses a polygraph examiner or supervises or controls a polygraph examiner's activities;
(4) another polygraph examiner in private consultation; or
(5) any other person required by due process of law.
Occ. Code § 1703.306. We find that certain information in the submitted records was obtained through polygraph examinations. It does not appear that any of the exceptions in section 1703.306 apply in this case. See Open Records Decision 565 (1990)(construing predecessor statute). Accordingly, the information we have marked is confidential pursuant to section 1703.306 of the Occupations Code and is therefore excepted from disclosure under section 552.101 of the Government Code.
The submitted materials also include fingerprint information that is subject to sections 559.001, 559.002, and 559.003 of the Government Code. They provide as follows:
Sec. 559.001. DEFINITIONS. In this chapter:
(1) "Biometric identifier" means a retina or iris scan, fingerprint, voiceprint, or record of hand or face geometry.
(2) "Governmental body" has the meaning assigned by Section 552.003 [of the Government Code], except that the term includes each entity within or created by the judicial branch of state government.
Sec. 559.002. DISCLOSURE OF BIOMETRIC IDENTIFIER. A governmental body that possesses a biometric identifier of an individual:
(1) may not sell, lease, or otherwise disclose the biometric identifier to another person unless:
(A) the individual consents to the disclosure;
(B) the disclosure is required or permitted by a federal statute or by a state statute other than Chapter 552 [of the Government Code]; or
(C) the disclosure is made by or to a law enforcement agency for a law enforcement purpose; and
(2) shall store, transmit, and protect from disclosure the biometric identifier using reasonable care and in a manner that is the same as or more protective than the manner in which the governmental body stores, transmits, and protects its other confidential information.
Sec. 559.003. APPLICATION OF CHAPTER 552. A biometric identifier in the possession of a governmental body is exempt from disclosure under Chapter 552.
It does not appear to this office that section 559.002 permits the disclosure of the submitted fingerprint information. Therefore, the department must withhold the fingerprints under section 552.101 in conjunction with section 559.003 of the Government Code.
Section 552.102 of the Government Code excepts from disclosure "information in a personnel file, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy." Gov't Code § 552.102(a). In Hubert v. Harte-Hanks Texas Newspapers, 652 S.W.2d 546 (Tex. App.--Austin 1983, writ ref'd n.r.e.), the court ruled that the test to be applied to information claimed to be protected under section 552.102 is the same as the test formulated by the Texas Supreme Court in Industrial Foundation for information claimed to be protected under the doctrine of common-law privacy as incorporated by section 552.101 of the Public Information Act (the "Act"). See Industrial Found. v. Texas Indus. Accident Bd., 540 S.W.2d 668, 683-85 (Tex. 1976), cert. denied, 430 U.S. 931 (1977). Information must be withheld from the public when (1) it is highly intimate or embarrassing such that its release would be highly objectionable to a person of ordinary sensibilities, and (2) there is no legitimate public interest in its disclosure. Id. at 685; Open Records Decision No. 611 at 1 (1992).
Generally, the work behavior of a public employee and the conditions for his or her continued employment are matters of legitimate public interest not protected by the common-law right of privacy. Open Records Decision No. 438 (1986). Similarly, information about a public employee's qualifications, disciplinary action and background is not protected by common-law privacy. Open Records Decision No. 444 (1986) (public has obvious interest in having access to information concerning the qualifications and performances of governmental employees, particularly employees who hold positions as sensitive as those held by members of a sheriff's department); see also Open Records Decision No. 562 at 9, n.2 (1990) (public has interest in preserving the credibility and effectiveness of the police force). Further, a governmental entity is not prevented from acquiring information about an employee's personal affairs when the information is gathered by the governmental agency in pursuit of a compelling governmental objective. Id. at 8-9. However, where an individual's criminal history information has been compiled by a governmental entity, the information takes on a character that implicates the individual's right to privacy. See United States Dep't of Justice v. Reporters Comm. for Freedom of the Press, 489 U.S. 749 (1989). Additionally, in Open Records Decision No. 339 (1982), we concluded that a sexual assault victim has a common-law privacy interest which prevents disclosure of information that would identify the victim. See also Morales v. Ellen, 840 S.W.2d 519 (Tex. App.--El Paso 1992, writ denied) (identity of witnesses to and victims of sexual harassment was highly intimate or embarrassing information and public did not have a legitimate interest in such information). Accordingly, we have marked the information that the department must withhold pursuant to common-law privacy in conjunction with section 552.101 of the Government Code. See Open Records Decision Nos. 393 (1983), 339 (1982).
Section 552.117(2) excepts from public disclosure a peace officer's home address, home telephone number, social security number, and information indicating whether the peace officer has family members regardless of whether the peace officer made an election under section 552.024 of the Government Code. Section 552.117(2) applies to peace officers as defined by article 2.12 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. However, we note that section 552.117(2) only protects a peace officer's 552.117 information in the context of his role as a "peace officer" and not as a "suspect," "complainant," or "victim" in a criminal investigation. Thus, we have marked the information in the submitted documents that must be withheld under section 552.117(2).
However, some of the peace officers whose personal information is at issue are no longer employed by the department. Furthermore, we are uncertain whether these individuals are still peace officers. If an individual remains a licensed peace officer as defined by article 2.12 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, then his information must not be released by the department pursuant to section 552.117(2) of the Government Code. However, if the former peace officer is no longer a licensed peace officer, section 552.117(1) excepts from disclosure the home addresses and telephone numbers, social security numbers, and family member information of current or former officials or employees of a governmental body who request that this information be kept confidential under section 552.024 of the Government Code. See Gov't Code § 552.117(1). Information that is responsive to a request may not be withheld from disclosure under section 552.117(1) if the employee did not request confidentiality in accordance with section 552.024 or if the request for confidentiality under section 552.024 was not made until after the request for information at issue was received by the governmental body. Whether a particular piece of information is public must be determined at the time the request for it is made. See Open Records Decision No. 530 at 5 (1989). Accordingly, we conclude that the department must withhold the marked information regarding a former peace officer or an employee pursuant to section 552.117(1), if the employee or former officer made a request for confidentiality under section 552.024 of the Government Code prior to the date on which the present request was received by the department.
For an officer to whom section 552.117 does not apply, home addresses and telephone numbers, social security numbers, and family member information may be excepted from disclosure under section 552.1175 of the Government Code. Section 552.1175 states in pertinent part:
(a) This section applies only to:
(1) peace officers as defined by Article 2.12, Code of Criminal Procedure;
. . .
(b) Information that relates to the home address, home telephone number, or social security number of an individual to whom this section applies, or that reveals whether the individual has family members is confidential and may not be disclosed to the public under this chapter if the individual to whom the information relates:
(1) chooses to restrict public access to the information; and
(2) notifies the governmental body of the individual's choice on a form provided by the governmental body, accompanied by evidence of the individual's status.
We have marked the information that is subject to section 552.1175. However, you do not inform this office, nor does any of the submitted information indicate, whether any peace officer has elected confidentiality for information about himself in accordance with the above-cited subsection 552.1175(b)(1) and (2). If such an election is made, the information we have marked must be redacted in accordance with section 552.1175. If no such election is made, the department may not withhold this information under section 552.1175.
Additionally, a social security number may nevertheless be excepted from required public disclosure under section 552.101 of the Government Code in conjunction with the 1990 amendments to the federal Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 405(c)(2)(C)(viii)(I), if it was obtained or is maintained by a governmental body pursuant to any provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990. See Open Records Decision No. 622 (1994). It is not apparent to us that any social security number contained in the information at issue was obtained or is maintained by the department pursuant to any provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990. You have cited no law, nor are we aware of any law, enacted on or after October 1, 1990, that authorizes the department to obtain or maintain a social security number. Therefore, we have no basis for concluding that any social security number in the submitted information was obtained or is maintained pursuant to such a statute and is, therefore, confidential under section 405(c)(2)(C)(vii)(I). We caution the department, however, that section 552.352 of the Government Code imposes criminal penalties for the release of confidential information. Prior to releasing any social security number, the department should ensure that this number was not obtained or is not maintained by the department pursuant to any provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990.
Section 552.119 of the Government Code excepts from public disclosure a photograph of a peace officer(3) that, if released, would endanger the life or physical safety of the officer unless one of three exceptions applies. The three exceptions are: (1) the officer is under indictment or charged with an offense by information; (2) the officer is a party in a fire or police civil service hearing or a case in arbitration; or (3) the photograph is introduced as evidence in a judicial proceeding. This section also provides that a photograph exempt from disclosure under this section may be made public only if the peace officer gives written consent to the disclosure. Open Records Decision No. 502 (1988). The submitted copies of photographs depict a former employee of the department. You have not informed us that the former employee is no longer a peace officer, or that the former employee has executed any written consent to disclosure. Thus, to the extent that none of the exceptions in section 552.119 apply, the department must withhold the photographs depicting a peace officer.
The submitted information also includes an account number. Section 552.136 of the Government Code states that "[n]otwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a credit card, debit card, charge card, or access device number that is collected, assembled, or maintained by or for a governmental body is confidential." Gov't Code § 552.136. The department must, therefore, withhold the marked account number under section 552.136.
Finally, we note that section 552.130 of the Government Code excepts from public disclosure information relating to a driver's license or motor vehicle title or registration issued by an agency of this state. Thus, we have marked the information in the submitted documents that the department must withhold pursuant to section 552.130.
To summarize: (1) the accident report, fingerprints, CHRI, and the results of polygraph examinations must be withheld under section 552.101; (2) we have marked the information that must be withheld under common-law privacy; (3) we have marked the information that must be withheld under section 552.117(2) for individuals who are licensed peace officers; (4) if the individual is an employee or a former employee who is no longer a licensed peace officer, and the employee made a timely request for confidentiality under section 552.024, the department must withhold the marked information pursuant to section 552.117(1) of the Government Code; (5) for an officer to whom section 552.117 does not apply but who made a request for confidentiality under section 552.1175, the department must withhold the marked information pursuant to section 552.1175 of the Government Code; (6) social security numbers may be confidential under federal law; (7) to the extent that none of the exceptions in section 552.119 apply, the department must withhold the photographs depicting a peace officer; (8) the marked account number must be withheld under section 552.136; and (9) we have marked the information that must be withheld under section 552.130. The remaining submitted information must be released to the requestor.
This letter ruling is limited to the particular records at issue in this request and limited to the facts as presented to us; therefore, this ruling must not be relied upon as a previous determination regarding any other records or any other circumstances.
This ruling triggers important deadlines regarding the rights and responsibilities of the governmental body and of the requestor. For example, governmental bodies are prohibited from asking the attorney general to reconsider this ruling. Gov't Code § 552.301(f). If the governmental body wants to challenge this ruling, the governmental body must appeal by filing suit in Travis County within 30 calendar days. Id. § 552.324(b). In order to get the full benefit of such an appeal, the governmental body must file suit within 10 calendar days. Id. § 552.353(b)(3), (c). If the governmental body does not appeal this ruling and the governmental body does not comply with it, then both the requestor and the attorney general have the right to file suit against the governmental body to enforce this ruling. Id. § 552.321(a).
If this ruling requires the governmental body to release all or part of the requested information, the governmental body is responsible for taking the next step. Based on the statute, the attorney general expects that, within 10 calendar days of this ruling, the governmental body will do one of the following three things: 1) release the public records; 2) notify the requestor of the exact day, time, and place that copies of the records will be provided or that the records can be inspected; or 3) notify the requestor of the governmental body's intent to challenge this letter ruling in court. If the governmental body fails to do one of these three things within 10 calendar days of this ruling, then the requestor should report that failure to the attorney general's Open Government Hotline, toll free, at 877/673-6839. The requestor may also file a complaint with the district or county attorney. Id. § 552.3215(e).
If this ruling requires or permits the governmental body to withhold all or some of the requested information, the requestor can appeal that decision by suing the governmental body. Id. § 552.321(a); Texas Department of Public Safety v. Gilbreath, 842 S.W.2d 408,411 (Tex. App.--Austin 1992, no writ).
Please remember that under the Act the release of information triggers certain procedures for costs and charges to the requestor. If records are released in compliance with this ruling, be sure that all charges for the information are at or below the legal amounts. Questions or complaints about over-charging must be directed to Hadassah Schloss at the Texas Building and Procurement Commission at 512/475-2497.
If the governmental body, the requestor, or any other person has questions or comments about this ruling, they may contact our office. We note that a third party may challenge this ruling by filing suit seeking to withhold information from a requestor. Gov't Code § 552.325. Although there is no statutory deadline for contacting us, the attorney general prefers to receive any comments within 10 calendar days of the date of this ruling.
c: Mr. Gerald W. Cichon
1. Chapter 552 of the Government Code does not require a governmental body to release information that did not exist when a request for information was received or to prepare new information. See Economic Opportunities Dev. Corp. v. Bustamante, 562 S.W.2d 266, 267-68 (Tex. Civ. App. - San Antonio 1978, writ dism'd); Open Records Decision Nos. 605 at 2 (1992), 452 at 3 (1986), 362 at 2 (1983).
2. As you do not raise section 552.108 with respect to the information at issue here, we do not address the applicability of this exception.
3. "Peace officer" is defined by article 2.12 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
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