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December 4, 2002

Mr. John S. Schneider, Jr.
First Assistant City Attorney
City of Pasadena
P.O. Box 672
Pasadena, Texas 77501


Dear Mr. Schneider:

You ask whether certain information is subject to required public disclosure under chapter 552 of the Government Code. Your request was assigned ID# 172308.

The City of Pasadena (the "city") received a request for copies of each proposal submitted in response to RFP 2001-02-01. You claim that the requested information is excepted from disclosure under sections 552.101, 552.104, and 552.110 of the Government Code. We have considered the exceptions you claim and reviewed the submitted information.

At the outset, we must address the city's obligations under section 552.301 of the Government Code. Pursuant to section 552.301(e), a governmental body is required to submit to this office within fifteen business days of receiving an open records request (1) general written comments stating the reasons why the stated exceptions apply that would allow the information to be withheld, (2) a copy of the written request for information, (3) a signed statement or sufficient evidence showing the date the governmental body received the written request, and (4) a copy of the specific information requested or representative samples, labeled to indicate which exceptions apply to which parts of the documents. You did not submit comments stating the reasons why the exceptions you have raised would allow the requested information to be withheld. Further, you did not submit the East Texas Medical Center ("ETMC") proposal and the GoldStar EMS. ("GoldStar") proposal until well after the fifteen-business-day deadline.

Pursuant to section 552.302 of the Government Code, a governmental body's failure to comply with section 552.301 results in the legal presumption that the requested information is public and must be released unless the governmental body demonstrates a compelling reason to withhold the information from disclosure. See Gov't Code 552.302; Hancock v. State Bd. of Ins., 797 S.W.2d 379, 381-82 (Tex. App.--Austin 1990, no writ) (governmental body must make compelling demonstration to overcome presumption of openness pursuant to statutory predecessor to Gov't Code 552.302); Open Records Decision No. 319 (1982). Normally, a compelling interest exists where some other source of law makes the information confidential or where third party interests are at stake. Open Records Decision No. 150 at 2 (1977). Sections 552.104 is a discretionary exception under the Public Information Act that does not constitute compelling reason sufficient to overcome the presumption that the requested information is public. See Open Records Decision Nos. 592 (1991) (governmental body may waive section 552.104), 522 (1989) (discretionary exceptions in general). Thus, the city may not withhold any of the submitted information under section 552.104. On the other hand, as sections 552.101 and 552.137 provide compelling reasons to overcome the presumption of openness, we will address the applicability of those exceptions to the submitted proposals.(1) See Open Records Decision No. 150 (1977) (presumption of openness overcome by showing that information is made confidential by another source of law or affects third party interests). Further, we believe that the interests of a third party present a compelling reason to overcome the presumption that the submitted information is public. Consequently, we will consider the arguments submitted by ETMC and Goldstar with respect to the submitted information.

We will now address the applicability of sections 552.101 and 552.110 to the submitted proposals. Section 552.101 excepts from public disclosure "information considered to be confidential by law, either constitutional, statutory, or by judicial decision." You have not directed our attention to any law, nor are we aware of any law, under which any of the submitted information is considered to be confidential for purposes of section 552.101. See, e.g., Open Records Decision Nos. 600 at 4 (1992) (constitutional privacy), 478 at 2 (1987) (statutory confidentiality), 611 at 1 (1992) (common-law privacy). Therefore, none of the submitted information is excepted from disclosure under section 552.101 of the Government Code.

Section 552.110 protects: (1) trade secrets, and (2) commercial or financial information the disclosure of which would cause substantial competitive harm to the person from whom the information was obtained. See Gov't Code 552.110. Section 552.110(a) protects the proprietary interests of private parties by excepting from disclosure trade secrets obtained from a person and privileged or confidential by statute or judicial decision. See Gov't Code 552.110(a). A "trade secret"

may consist of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information which is used in one's business, and which gives [one] an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. It may be a formula for a chemical compound, a process of manufacturing, treating or preserving materials, a pattern for a machine or other device, or a list of customers. It differs from other secret information in a business in that it is not simply information as to single or ephemeral events in the conduct of the business, as for example the amount or other terms of a secret bid for a contract or the salary of certain employees.... A trade secret is a process or device for continuous use in the operation of the business. Generally it relates to the production of goods, as for example, a machine or formula for the production of an article. It may, however, relate to the sale of goods or to other operations in the business, such as a code for determining discounts, rebates or other concessions in a price list or catalogue, or a list of specialized customers, or a method of bookkeeping or other office management.

Restatement of Torts 757 cmt. b (1939); see also Hyde Corp. v. Huffines, 314 S.W.2d 763, 776 (Tex. 1958); Open Records Decision Nos. 255 (1980), 232 (1979), 217 (1978).

There are six factors to be assessed in determining whether information qualifies as a trade secret:

(1) the extent to which the information is known outside of [the company's] business;

(2) the extent to which it is known by employees and others involved in [the company's] business;

(3) the extent of measures taken by [the company] to guard the secrecy of the information;

(4) the value of the information to [the company] and to [its] competitors;

(5) the amount of effort or money expended by [the company] in developing this information; and

(6) the ease or difficulty with which the information could be properly acquired or duplicated by others.

Restatement of Torts 757 cmt. b (1939); see also Open Records Decision No. 232 (1979). This office must accept a claim that information subject to the Act is excepted as a trade secret if a prima facie case for exemption is made and no argument is submitted that rebuts the claim as a matter of law. See Open Records Decision No. 552 (1990). However, we cannot conclude that section 552.110(a) is applicable unless it has been shown that the information meets the definition of a trade secret and the necessary factors have been demonstrated to establish a trade secret claim. See Open Records Decision No. 402 (1983).

Section 552.110(b) protects "[c]ommercial or financial information for which it is demonstrated based on specific factual evidence that disclosure would cause substantial competitive harm to the person from whom the information was obtained[.]" Gov't Code 552.110(b). This exception to disclosure requires a specific factual or evidentiary showing, not conclusory or generalized allegations, that substantial competitive injury would likely result from release of the information at issue. Gov't Code 552.110(b); see also National Parks & Conservation Ass'n v. Morton, 498 F.2d 765 (D.C. Cir. 1974); Open Records Decision No. 661 (1999).

ETMC generally argues that "certain financial summaries, reports and consolidated financial statements" submitted in Section 6 of its proposal should be withheld under section 552.110(b) of the Government Code. However, ETMC does not explain which portions of Section 6 it seeks to have withheld. Further, ETMC has not specifically explained how or why the release of such information would cause it substantial competitive harm. Thus, we conclude that ETMC has not demonstrated the applicability of section 552.110(b) to any portion of its submitted information. Thus, the submitted information regarding ETMC must be released to the requestor.

GoldStar argues that information regarding its customers, its modes of operation, and its list and resumes of key employees constitute trade secret information that must be withheld under section 552.110(a). We find, however, that GoldStar has not provided arguments sufficient to establish the applicability of section 552.110(a) to such information. See Open Records Decision No. 319 at 3 (1982) (information relating to organization and personnel, market studies, professional references, qualifications and experience, and pricing are not ordinarily excepted from disclosure under statutory predecessor). GoldStar also argues that certain financial documents, information regarding its modes of operation, and information regarding its insurance coverage must be withheld under section 552.110(b). GoldStar explains that release of its commercial information regarding its particular modes of operation could be duplicated by a competitor and thereby harm GoldStar's strength over its competitors. Thus, we agree that the city must withhold the information we have marked on pages 3-6 and the entirety of pages 42-58 of GoldStar's proposal. We conclude, however, that GoldStar has not specifically explained how or why the release of its remaining information would cause it substantial competitive harm. Thus, the remaining information in the GoldStar proposal may not be withheld under section 552.110.

We note that the GoldStar proposal contains an e-mail address obtained from the public. Section 552.137 makes certain e-mail addresses confidential. Section 552.137 provides:

(a) An e-mail address of a member of the public that is provided for the purpose of communicating electronically with a governmental body is confidential and not subject to disclosure under this chapter.

(b) Confidential information described by this section that relates to a member of the public may be disclosed if the member of the public affirmatively consents to its release.

Gov't Code 552.137. You do not inform us that a member of the public has affirmatively consented to the release of any e-mail address contained in the submitted materials. The city must, therefore, withhold e-mail addresses of members of the public under section 552.137. We have marked the e-mail address that must be withheld under section 552.137.

To summarize: (1) the information we have marked in pages 1-7 and the entirety of pages 42-58 of GoldStar's proposal must be withheld under section 552.110(b); (2) we have marked the e-mail address in the GoldStar proposal that must be withheld under section 552.137; and (3) the remaining submitted information must be released.

This letter ruling is limited to the particular records at issue in this request and limited to the facts as presented to us; therefore, this ruling must not be relied upon as a previous determination regarding any other records or any other circumstances.

This ruling triggers important deadlines regarding the rights and responsibilities of the governmental body and of the requestor. For example, governmental bodies are prohibited from asking the attorney general to reconsider this ruling. Gov't Code 552.301(f). If the governmental body wants to challenge this ruling, the governmental body must appeal by filing suit in Travis County within 30 calendar days. Id. 552.324(b). In order to get the full benefit of such an appeal, the governmental body must file suit within 10 calendar days. Id. 552.353(b)(3), (c). If the governmental body does not appeal this ruling and the governmental body does not comply with it, then both the requestor and the attorney general have the right to file suit against the governmental body to enforce this ruling. Id. 552.321(a).

If this ruling requires the governmental body to release all or part of the requested information, the governmental body is responsible for taking the next step. Based on the statute, the attorney general expects that, within 10 calendar days of this ruling, the governmental body will do one of the following three things: 1) release the public records; 2) notify the requestor of the exact day, time, and place that copies of the records will be provided or that the records can be inspected; or 3) notify the requestor of the governmental body's intent to challenge this letter ruling in court. If the governmental body fails to do one of these three things within 10 calendar days of this ruling, then the requestor should report that failure to the attorney general's Open Government Hotline, toll free, at 877/673-6839. The requestor may also file a complaint with the district or county attorney. Id. 552.3215(e).

If this ruling requires or permits the governmental body to withhold all or some of the requested information, the requestor can appeal that decision by suing the governmental body. Id. 552.321(a); Texas Department of Public Safety v. Gilbreath, 842 S.W.2d 408,411 (Tex. App.--Austin 1992, no writ).

Please remember that under the Act the release of information triggers certain procedures for costs and charges to the requestor. If records are released in compliance with this ruling, be sure that all charges for the information are at or below the legal amounts. Questions or complaints about over-charging must be directed to Hadassah Schloss at the Texas Building and Procurement Commission at 512/475-2497.

If the governmental body, the requestor, or any other person has questions or comments about this ruling, they may contact our office. We note that a third party may challenge this ruling by filing suit seeking to withhold information from a requestor. Gov't Code 552.325. Although there is no statutory deadline for contacting us, the attorney general prefers to receive any comments within 10 calendar days of the date of this ruling.


Karen A. Eckerle
Assistant Attorney General
Open Records Division
Ref: ID# 172308
Enc: Submitted documents

c: Mr. James G. Peirce
Rural Metro Ambulance
4425 Spencer Highway
Pasadena, Texas 77504
(w/o enclosures)

Ms. Lindsey S. Birdsong
Potter Minton, P.C.
P.O. Box 359
Tyler, Texas 75710
(w/o enclosures)

Mr. Marc P. Henry
Henry & Fuller
2175 North Street, Suite 100
Beaumont, Texas 77701
(w/o enclosures)



1. The Office of the Attorney General will raise a mandatory exception like section 552.137 on behalf of a governmental body, but ordinarily will not raise other exceptions. Open Records Decision Nos. 481 (1987), 480 (1987), 470 (1987).

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